It’s raw, beautiful, and is made from natural materials. But just how eco friendly is ceramic, really?
By Chere Di Boscio
For millennia, humans have been creating drinking vessels, jugs, plates, vases and even jewellery out of clay. Still today, given the vast variety of materials available to us, clay is still one of the most beautiful and durable options.
Derived directly from the earth, clay is formed into ceramics that are not only useful, but serve as beautiful home interior design objects. Stoneware, earthenware and porcelain are all sourced from, well, dirt. And when their use is over, they return to their origins: the earth.
There are loads of different kinds of clay, and these will define the object they make. For example, there’s:
- Kaolin or china clay (used for porcelain)
- Ball clay (fine-grained, adds plasticity to porcelain clay)
- Fire clay (highly heat-resistant)
- Stoneware clay (heat resistant with finer grains)
- Red clay (used for bricks)
The original source of the material will determine the sustainability of a ceramic. For example, natural mineral clay is excellent for creating beautiful, safe and sustainable pieces you can feel good about using in your home, like vases. Terracotta clay is wonderful for mugs, but not so great for toilets.
Sadly, some modern ceramics actually now add in plastics to make them more durable. So just how eco friendly is ceramic in general?
Image below: GlobeIn
Is Ceramic Too Hot To Be Eco Friendly?
The case against the material comes mainly from those who note that much energy is used to fire the kilns that harden clay for ceramics. In fact, temperatures in the thousands of degrees are needed. Additionally, many types of glazes require two trips to the kiln to finish. If that energy usually comes from fossil fuels, that’s a pretty heavy environmental footprint for say, a cup.
However, of course the kiln rarely, if ever, contains one small object! Dozens can be baked in one go. Plus, pottery takes less energy to make than glass does. And many ceramicists claim that in larger studios and in industrial pottery making, there are heat recovery systems in place that ensure the building incurs no further need for hot water provision or heating beyond what’s provided by the heat of the kiln.
In fact, some of that heat can even be exported to local community buildings, or even into grow-tunnels to give some warmth to tomatoes and other heat-loving crops. So, that’s pretty good, right?
But there are some other reasons to ask how eco friendly is ceramic, as you can see below.
Glazed ceramics have the same chemical stability of glass. That’s why you can find ceramic jewellery, cups and other objects that date back thousands of years. That’s not surprising, as unlike glass, glazed ceramic is quite durable. It survives extreme changes in temperature (glass will break if the temperature on one of its surfaces changes much faster than the other). It’s also less fragile than glass in most cases.
So…how eco friendly is ceramic, then, if it can last that long?
Well, that depends on your outlook. Some would argue that durability is sustainability in this case. For example, you’d never think to toss out ceramic cups or plates after one use, as people almost always do with plastic or paper. And while wood and bamboo plates and cups may last much longer than these materials, they are more prone to water damage, scratches and cuts than ceramic is.
But now we need to talk about glazes.
It’s true that there are many harmful chemicals in some these. Most notably lead, which can leach into food and liquids used on ceramic table wear. On the other hand, there is also a wide variety of beautiful, non-toxic glazes available, too. And of course, for jugs, pots for plants and many other household objects, you can find unglazed pottery that’s pretty much just baked earth.
The Bottom Line
So, how eco friendly is ceramic, then? Well, despite the energy needed to fire a kiln, if the heat is well managed and distributed, and if no toxic materials are added to the clay or in the finish, it seems there are few materials around that are as durable and eco-friendly as ceramics.
Ceramics are also sometimes the best possible option for certain objects. For example, ceramic tiling in the bathroom may have a lower CO2 footprint than importing stone like granite or marble. Ceramic pans are also much healthier to use than Teflon ones. And can you even imagine toilets or dental implants made from anything else?
We love raw, primitive ceramics not only for their eco-credentials. But also because of the infinite variety of shape, form and texture they can take on. Ceramics reflect the potential beauty of what happens when natural materials are transformed by human creativity.
Further Resources Used For This Article