By Chere Di Boscio
The name is French. The rules are French. So you may be surprised to discover the whole concept was introduced by…an Englishman. In fact this man, Charles Frederick Worth, turned the women-led tradition of dressmaking into the male-dominated industry it is today. In the mid 1800s, when Worth began to sew, fashion was dominated by individual dressmakers, always women. These ladies would create outfits according to whatever their wealthy clients demanded. Worth worked in a textile shop and convinced his employers he too could sew garments. He was met with opposition–it was as unusual then for men to be clothing designers as it would be for women to be construction workers today.
Worth exploited his wife, Marie–who was young and attractive–to model his creations in public and convince people of his skills. Marie managed to show a few of her husband’s sketches to one Mme Metternich, an Austrian Princess and wife to the Ambassador to Paris, and she loved what she saw. Soon, she commissioned Worth to create a gown for her that she wore to a ball where the Empress Eugénie was present. The Empress was entranced by Mme Metternich’s dress and asked for the designer’s details. Shortly after, the House of Worth was established, as was the concept of the ‘fashion designer’–and with it, the fashion label (Worth was the first to ever put his name on a tag inside a garment). Women’s roles in the world of fashion would soon be reduced to mainly that of ‘petites mains’ (little hands) and men were on their way to all but monopolising fashion creation.
Here are some more very interesting facts and figures about the world’s most exclusive fashion club.
The History of Haute Couture: Timeline
1858: Charles Frederick Worth, an English tailor, used the term ‘fashion designer’ (as opposed to ‘tailor’ or ‘dressmaker’ for the first time, and established the first haute couture house in Paris, which sold luxury fashion to elite women of the upper classes.
1868: To set the specifications to determine what constituted a ‘couture house’, Le Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture was established as the industry’s first gatekeepers. They decided that ‘haute couture’ consists of clothing that is:
- Custom-made to fit the wearer
- Hand-made by expert artisans, specialised in one area (such as embroidery, stitching, beading, etc)
- Of the highest quality fabrics and materials
- Exclusive in design and fit for each client
1908: The phrase “haute couture” (literally, ‘high sewing’) was coined by the Chambre Syndicale.
1921: The French press created PAIS (L’Association de Protection des Industries Artistiques Saisonnieres) to protect couture designs from being copied. To ensure the copyright of the designers, their creations were photographed on a model or mannequin from the front, back and side as evidence.
1945: The strict rules of Le Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture were established to determine whether or not a couture label could be deemed as such. About 100 labels qualified. In order to meet their criteria, the maison had to ensure several points were followed, including:
– Designs must be made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings
– Each atelier must have at least 20 members of staff
– Each season, the couture house must present a collection of at least 35 runs with both daytime and evening wear to the Paris press.
These rules (and more) are still in place today.
1966: The first ever couture boutique was established by pioneer Yves Saint Laurent when he launched Saint Laurent Rive Gauche. Other brands, including Pierre Cardin, Andre Courreges, Ted Lapidus and Emanuel Ungaro soon followed. Today, clients must book a private appointment at the atelier of the designer.
1970: The number of couture houses dropped to just 19. Many designers attributed blame to the strict rules from Le Chambre Syndicale de La Haute Couture, but other important factors include the growth of cheaper, mass-produced fashion using synthetic materials and widespread recession. Thierry Mugler and Christian Lacroix both left the Chambre at this time.
1980s: The rise of Middle Eastern oil fortunes and the Western economies stimulated more demand for couture.
2013: Rad Hourani debuted the first ever unisex couture collection.
2014: Christian Dior brought the first haute couture show to Shanghai and Ralph & Russo joined as the first British brand in over 100 years of Couture Fashion Week. A total of 12 fashion houses showed on the autumn/winter 14-15 couture schedule in Paris, only two of which were actually French (Chanel and Dior).
The house of Chanel owns Paraffection, a subsidiary company created to support artisanal manufacturing. It includes the world’s greatest Ateliers d’Art including Desrues (specialised in ornamentation and buttons), Lemarié for feathers, Lesage for embroidery, Massaro for shoemaking and Michel for millinery.
The main buyers of Haute Couture today are no longer French socialites, but buyers from Russia, China and the Middle East. Fine clothing items can escalate in value over the years, and are often regarded as collectors’ items, making for a clever investment.