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The Truth Behind Canada’s Seal Hunt


Six kinds of seals inhabit the waters off Canada’s Atlantic coast: harp, hooded, grey, ringed, bearded and harbour. Harp seals account for the vast majority of those hunted, so for the purposes of this article, all references to seals shall imply harp seals.

By Jody McCutcheon

Whomever you talk to, Canada’s seal hunt is a sensitive subject. As far back as 1978, French explorer and conservationist Jacques Cousteau noted the major stakeholders were acting on emotion rather than logic. Today, little has changed. Sealers hunt not for money, but for the love of tradition, the thrill of the hunt, you name it; protesters vehemently denounce the seemingly brutal killing of cute little seal pups; and while animal welfare agencies worldwide encourage bans on Canadian seafood in response to the seal hunt, the Canadian government continues to subsidize an industry for which international demand is at an all-time low.

The debate focuses on issues of cruelty, conservation and economics. Should the Canadian seal hunt and its ugly “killing floes” come to an end? If so, why?


A Question of Cruelty

Seals are harvested for their skin, fat and meat. (In the days before Viagra, adult seal penis bones were also in high demand on the Asian aphrodisiac market.) Warm and waterproof, seal pelts make for excellent cold-weather clothing. Seal fat is used in cooking oil, fuel, soap, lubricants, etc. Seal meat is rich in protein, iron, calcium, magnesium and Vitamins A and B12. Subsistence hunters, such as Canadian Inuit, use virtually every part of the seal, plus they hunt mainly adult seals. But subsistence hunting accounts for only about three percent of the annual Canadian seal hunt.

The other ninety-seven percent comes from the commercial hunt, which targets baby seals (between the ages of two weeks and three months, when pelts fetch the best prices) and takes only the pelt, leaving the rest. A Humane Society report suggests that over 98% of seals killed are younger than three months old. That’s an awful lot of seal pup carcasses rotting on blood-soaked ice floes. To an outsider looking in, the Canadian commercial seal hunt looks gruesome and wasteful.

However cruel it may look, hunters are held up to stringent protocols of killing and skinning seals, as defined in Canada’s Marine Mammal Regulations (MMR). Seals are killed with firearms from long range and hakapiks from short-range. The hakapik is a long-handled hammer with a blunt side for killing and a claw side for dragging. Canada’s MMR require the skull be crushed immediately to minimize suffering. Hakapiks are more reliable than firearms, as long-range rifle shots often only wound the seal, which might then fall off the ice floe and drown, as pups often cannot swim.

Anti-sealing activists have used the hakapik to symbolise the inhumane nature of seal-killing, such that the Premiers of Newfoundland and Nunavut moved to ban the tool in 2008. In fact, hakapiks are not only more reliable killing instruments than firearms; when properly used, they’re more efficient (i.e., humane). The American Humane Society even spoke out against the proposed ban, arguing that without the use of hakapiks, seal suffering would increase. Consider also that seals are free-range, so they don’t suffer the appalling pre-slaughter fate of factory-farmed animals.

Annoyed by a seemingly illogical protest, Cousteau back in 1978 compared the slaughter of seals with the slaughter of pigs, suggesting pig-killing is equally as vicious yet condoned by the consuming public nonetheless. Perhaps this is related to the fact that pigs are killed in slaughterhouses, behind closed doors. By contrast, commercial seal killing is performed on a very visible, outdoor stage, making it more vulnerable to protest. The seal hunt may appear cruel and inhumane, but in theory it’s no worse than what goes on inside a slaughterhouse.

In practice, however, humane killing isn’t always possible. A 2012 veterinary report suggests that inherent variables in seal-hunting environments, such as high winds, ocean swells, low temperatures and visibility, melting ice floes and the speed at which the killing occurs, prevent consistent application of MMR-sanctioned killing methods. Another study depicted hunters skinning live seals in up to three of every eight cases. When the MMR aren’t obeyed, seal killing descends into cruelty. And unfortunately, monitoring the hunt can be difficult, as Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) authorities must police a vast area. Canada’s seal hunt mainly occurs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and off the Newfoundland-Labrador coast, in an area called The Front, every March and April.


A Greenpeace activists sprays a baby seal green to render its coat useless to the fur industry

A Question of Conservation?

Then there is the issue of conservation. In order to avoid overhunting seals, the DFO instituted the concept of Total Allowable Catch (TAC) in 1971. Since 2000, the Canadian commercial seal hunt’s TAC has averaged about 320,000 per year. Between 1971 and 2013, sealers harvested an average of about sixty-five percent of the yearly TAC. According to a 2011 DFO report, the seal population has increased fourfold in that time, to about eight million seals. In the last five years, with worldwide demand for seal products plummeting (more on that later), the harvest has been about nineteen percent of the TAC. Seals are not an endangered species.

Another potential conservation issue comes from recent rising temperatures, which have melted significant amounts of ice. Adult seals traditionally birth their young on these disappearing floes, so now they must find new whelping grounds. When pups that can’t swim fall off the floes, they simply drown. In 2007, the DFO began reducing the hunt quota by twenty percent to account for this new danger.

Also consider the relationship between seals and fish. A seal will eat at least a tonne of fish every year, so without regular culling of the seal population, Canada’s fish populations may be vulnerable to significant decreases. In fact, the European Union still somewhat hypocritically practices seal culling to protect its own fish stocks, despite having banned seal products from European markets.

Anyone still worried about conservation issues, take note: Canadian regulations clearly describe who can and can’t hunt seals. If you’re not an Aboriginal, or if you live below 53 degrees North latitude, you need a valid commercial sealing license to hunt. Furthermore, beginning in 2014, new measures will make it tougher to obtain a license. Hunters must undergo training in a new MMR-sanctioned, three-step process of humane killing that includes stunning, monitoring for unconsciousness and bleeding out. (While this training is now mandatory, sealers have voluntarily been taking it since 2009.) Sealers who breach conduct—hunting of newborn “whitecoat” seals, using unsanctioned killing methods, sealing without a valid license, etc.—face penalties including court-imposed fines, license prohibitions and seizure of catches, fishing gear and vessels/vehicles.

Sit-in against Seal Hunt in front of Canadian Embassy

Dollars or Sense?

While the Feds are tightening regulatory screws on hunters, the Newfoundland-Labrador government subsidized the sealing industry to the tune of $3.6 million in 2013. And now the province and the Feds have teamed up on a $500,000 marketing campaign to promote seal meat domestically and abroad, even though there’s no traditional market for seal meat outside Newfoundland-Labrador and Asia.

Yet at least twenty-three countries have banned the import of seal products, including major markets Russian, Taiwan, Mexico, the EU and US. Canada appealed to the World Trade Organization for exemption status, but the WTO recently upheld the ban. In the face of collapsing international demand, what point is there in adding new regulations and subsidizing sealers to hunt unwanted seals? These measures seem like desperate attempts to keep a dying industry on life support.

Look at it this way: the 2004 seal harvest was worth CAD$16.5 million, not even three percent of Newfoundland-Labrador’s $600 million fishing industry. That’s without accounting for subsidies. More recently, the 2011 seal hunt was worth just over CAD$1 million. On average, commercial fishermen-cum-sealers earn less than 5% of their annual income through the seal hunt. From a pure number-crunching perspective, the seal hunt makes little in terms of dollars and sense.

A Plea For Logic

To whom it may concern: Eliminate the Canadian commercial seal hunt, please. Not because the seals are killed inhumanely, or because of conservation issues, or because sealers will lose their economic lifeblood. No, the Canadian commercial seal hunt should be nixed because international demand for seal products is all but dead. For better or worse, the world’s decision-makers have been swayed by decades of a protest that was shortsighted at best and spurious at worst. It’s time to stop acting on emotion and—once and for all—let logic have a say in the seal hunt.


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  • Reply
    ashley byrne
    Mar 25, 2014 at 3:19 pm

    in a world where finite resources are dwindling, sustainable renewable resources are of utmost importance. i agree completely with your statement, time for emotion to leave this issue and logic to come in. the seal industry is suffering from an attack by AR groups, who have used a smear campiagn to manipulate peoples emotions. the reality of ending the sealhunt in canada, taxpayers will be left to foot the bill for a buyott and employment insurance benefits for generations to come. if the world knows the truth about the canadian seal hunt, instead of the manipulative information spread to the world by profitering AR groups. the canadian economy will gain from a viable industry that produces quality products. so yes time to take the emotional spin away from the seal industry. an end to the seal industry wont bring an end to the killing of seals. it will begin culling. nobody will benefit from that, including the seals. if seals are going to be killed anyway, why not make it beneficial to the economy.

  • Reply
    Mar 25, 2014 at 3:52 pm

    Yes, end the seal HUNT and implement a seal CULL instead. Then you can have government employees on a salary kill the over abundant seals and leave them to rot fur and meat. This is how the Netherlands solves their muskrat problem, so why shouldn’t we, as a civilized country, not follow suite??
    The solution is to find new markets and use as much as possible of an overabundant resource. The hunt is humane, seals are a green, organic, renewable resource. Let’s go for it>

  • Reply
    Jul 6, 2014 at 4:17 pm

    I love how this article hammers home the word CANADIAN every sentance.
    Yes.. It’s us evil Canadians, right…
    A) In my 40 year life in Canada I’ve never seen a single person WEARING baby seal fur
    B) you know why? Because it is AMERICANS and Europeans who wear it!
    C) by buying it and wearing it AMERICANS pay the bills of the seal hunters and make it worth their time.

    This is like Americans shoving millions of cheeseburgers down their gullets, but then judging Amazonian leaders when the rainforests are cut down for their unnecessary and unhealthy food.
    Stop funding horrible things then shifting the blame to the hitman you have contracted.
    Crazy idea: stop thinking promoting violent baby deaths in order to “look good”,
    Thennn sit on your imaginary high horse and judge.
    Such a familiar situation, the US creates or promotes an industry which destroys land, animals or ethics in another land-
    Then sits in judgement oblivious of the integral role YOU play in these activities.
    Yes, the world is hostage to the almighty US dollar, and you know it.
    You are making choices others have to live with, and then have the ignorance and gall to sit in judgement!

    Ps: I’m fully against the seal hunting. I just know we aren’t doing it for our domestic market!

  • Reply
    Jul 6, 2014 at 4:24 pm

    Oh and Ashley, it’s quite obvious you “don’t work for” any industry benefiting from this despicable behavior. You’re “quite right” those awful animal rights groups are trying to screw us out of jobs (an EXTREMELY American way of twisting a situation!)
    And ps: animals killed so rich people can wear snotty clothes to keep up with the Jonses is NOT a Resource as you word-twistingly put it, it’s animals.. Being killed… So people can look swanky,
    Such obvious and pedestrian wordplay is also very American – over here we generally can count to 3 and understand preverications falling out of people’s mouths.
    Save your weak rhetoric for people who historically fall for such things!

  • Reply
    Gil Theriault
    Nov 4, 2014 at 3:33 pm

    Comments show most people are now aware of the truth about seal hunt: sustainable and necessary for small coastal communities is what defines it best.

  • Reply
    Joe rideout
    Mar 4, 2016 at 2:04 pm

    I cannot believe that someone would suggest stopping the seal hunt because it is too insignificant as a means of income for fishermen. Jody is there a portion of your income that you’re going to abandon because it accounts for only three percent of your total salary. These are the same ole naive suggestions we hear often. The reason the Seal Hunt is so small is because of people like celebrities who live such vicarious existences don’t understand the human factor involved when a way of life is destroyed for a small group of people.My people of Newfoundland have given their lives throughout history to make this industry work. Instead they have become branded as bloodthirsty villains.

  • Reply
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